Antioxidants in Marine Meals

Dear friends and colleagues.

End 2018, the organization that represents and promotes marine ingredients fish meal and fish oil, IFFO, sponsored a workshop on fishmeal and fish oil supported by the Nordic Centre of Excellence Network, Copenhagen, Denmark. This important subject involved production, trade and sales of marine meals and oils in relation to the antioxidants used.

Within the most important aspects discussed was the EU Feed Additives Regulation (EC) 1831/2003 stating;

a) Within reauthorisation process: ETQ (ethoxyquin), BHT, BHA, propyl gallate, rosemary extract, citric acid.

b) Authorized: Vitamin E; alpha-tocopherol and tocopherol rich extracts; ascorbic acid; sodium + calcium ascorbate; ascorbyl palmitate

Following, EU’s end 2018 status;

  1. ETQ is legal for use as a feed additive in fishmeal until 30/09/2019;
  2. Deadline provides time for a further EFSA Opinion on safety;
  3. EFSA opinion was followed by a European Commission decision;
  4. Indications were provided of market movement away from ETQ.
  5. GSI applied voluntary max limit of 400ppm 2017 in received FM at feed plants;
  6. Synthetic a/ox not allowed in EU organic aquaculture regs;
  7. BHT reauthorisation process delayed (lack of clarity on requirements by EFSA)
  8. Some indications of market resistance to BHT, linked to “synthetics”?

Which was IFFO’s position on the a/ox discussion relevant to the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) Codes:

Stabilization of fishmeal shall be achieved to prevent spontaneous combustion by effective application of ethoxyquin, BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) or tocopherols (also used in a blend with rosemary extract) at the time of production. The said application shall occur within twelve months prior to shipment. Fish scrap or fish meal shall contain at least 50 ppm (mg/kg) of ethoxyquin, 100 ppm (mg/kg) of BHT or 250 ppm (mg/kg) of tocopherol based antioxidant at the time of shipment.

A 12-months research was performed aimed to determine safety (i.e. stability) with lower than current levels of ethoxyquin, as well as tocopherols, and to provide datasets that are relevant to fishmeal in bulk.

Full 2017 Antioxidant test report can be seen here IFFO Fishmeal stability trial Report_final Oct 2017.

Which are the compounds, or a mix of them, that may substitute or be added to the pool of antioxidants;

  1. Soybean Oil, BHT, Lecithin, Ethoxyquin, Vegetable Fatty Acids of Methyl Ester, BHA and Mono and Diglyceride-.
  2. BHA + Propyl Gallate
  3. Product based on different gallates +Tocopherols and rosemary-
  4. BHT + PG
  5. Glutathione
  6. CoQ10
  7. Oligopeptides
  8. Propyl Gallate
  9. Tannic Acid
  10. Maqui berries
  11. Tanirox-10 DRY (3A) (natural compounds not disclosed)
  12. BHA, propyl gallate and citric acid
  13. Rosemary Extract, green tea, acerola and/or mixed tocopherols, plus the addition of quenchers and/or chelators-.
  14. BHT and a “ New Secret compound”
  15. Other possible blends between PG, Tocopherols, BHT, BHA
  16. Tocopherols + Rosemary extract
  17. Tannic Acid